Sermon of al-Husayn ibn ‘Ali

The following sermon of al‑Husayn ibn 'Ali (A) delivered during Mu'awiyah's reign at the time of Hajj in a gathering of eminent personalities of the period, not only shows the kind of issues that should be discussed during Hajj, but also is a good guideline for sermons which are delivered in majalis during Muharram and Safar:

O people! Take a lesson from God's warning to His friends through His censure on the rabbis, when He says:

Why do the bishops and rabbis not forbid them to utter sin, [and consume the unlawful? Evil is the thing they are doing.] (5:63)

And when He says:

Cursed were the unbelievers of the Children of Israel by the tongue. of David, and of Jesus, Mary's son; that for their rebelling and their transgression. They forbade not one another any dishonour that they committed; surely evil were the things that they did. (5:78‑79)

God has reproved them because they beheld the open vices and corruption of the oppressors, but did not forbid them from that on account of attachment to their favours and fear of what periled them. Whereas God says: ...So fear not men, but fear me .... (5:44)

And He says: And the believers, the men and the women, are friends of one another; they bid to honour and forbid dishonour (i.e. perform the duty of al‑ amr bil ma'ruf wd al‑nahy `an al‑munkar), they perform the prayer, and pay the alms, and they obey God and His Messenger. They‑upon them God shall have mercy; God is Almighty, All‑wise. (9:71)

God mentions the duty of al‑amr bil ma'ruf wa al‑nahy `an al‑munkar before all other duties, because He knows that if it is performed and established in the society all other duties, the easy and the difficult, are also established. That is why al‑amr bil ma'ruf wa al‑nahy`an al‑munkar signifies invitation to Islam together with resistance against injustice, opposition to the oppressor, [proper] division of the public funds and booty, collection of alms and their correct distribution.

Then you, O company of men well‑known for your learning! You, who have a good name and are known [among the people] for your goodwill. God has given you honour with the people. The illustrious venerate you and the weak respect you. You. are preferred by him over whom you have no merit and over whom you have no power. The deprived seek your intercession in need, and you walk on the road with the majesty of kings and princes. Is it not that you have such honour and dignity because people place their hopes in you to stand for the establishment of Divine duties? If you fail to discharge most of those duties, then you have scorned the duties of leaders. You have forfeited the rights of the weak, though you have obtained your own claims. Neither you had to sacrifice your wealth nor endanger your lives for the sake of Him Who created you. Nevertheless, you desire that God should put you in the Paradise in the neighbourhood of His apostles, and you hope to be safe from His chastisement. Indeed I am afraid that you who harbour such hopes from God shall have to taste His vengeance. Because God had honoured you and raised you in station above others, for there are many servants of God who are not held in such high esteem as God has granted you among the people. God's covenants are broken before your very eyes, yet you are not dismayed, although you are alarmed if some of your ancestral compacts are endangered; as if the compact of the Messenger of Allah (S) were some insignificant and paltry thing! The blind, the dumb and the handicapped in towns are without protection and mercy, but you neither act as demanded by your high station nor care and have regard for one who attends to them. You have made your own life safe and secure by getting along with the oppressors and showing lenience and connivance in regard to their injustices, which God had com­manded you to oppose and forbid. Indeed if you understand, the calamity that has befallen you is greater than the one which afflicts the people; because you have failed to safeguard the responsibility of the learned. Since the implementation of the laws and running of the affairs lie with the men of Divine knowledge, who are custodians of His [laws regarding the] haram and halal. But you have been wrested of this status. And it was not taken away from you except for your departure from righteousness, and on account of your disagreement regarding the Sunnah, after that it had been made clear and evident to you.

Had you the endurance to put up with adversities and hardships for the sake of God, the affairs of God would have returned into your hands and your lost authority would have turned to you again. But you allowed the oppressors to take your place and handed over the affairs of God into their hands, that they may act dubiously and indulge in their lusts. They got their authority because of your running away from death [which is inevitable] and due to your love of life, which shall [anyhow] depart from you. In this fashion, you submitted the weak into their hands, to be enslaved and exploited, permitting them to run the affairs of the country according to their whims, and to make ignominy their way of life through their [unchecked] desires, following the perverse and disobeying the Almighty. They have appointed a loud‑voiced orator for every pulpit in every town, and the country lies open and unprotected at their mercy. Their hands are free to do whatever they like, and the defenseless people are at the disposal of their mercy. Among them are merciless tyrants who oppress the weak, and men of authority who know neither the creation nor the Day of Resurrection. It is surprising‑and why shouldn't I be surprised‑when the country is in the hands of a faithless tyrant and the ruler of the believers is one who has no mercy for them. Indeed God is a judge between us in our disputes and contentions.

My God, You Know that whatever I have said is not for the sake of rivalry for power, nor for the sake of futile vanities of the world, but because we desire establishment of the landmarks of Thy religion, reform in Thy lands, security of Thy oppressed creatures, and the practice of Thy com­mands and the duties laid down by Thee.

And you, [O company of the elect of the Ummah] , assist us and do us due justice. The oppressors have power over you and they act to extinguish the light of your Prophet (S).

And God suffices us, and in Him we put our trust. Towards Him do we turn, and towards Him all things shall return.

The present situation in the Muslim world is no better than the conditions that prevailed during the later decades of the life of al‑Husayn ibn `Ali (A). All way-marks of the Islamic culture have been washed away in the deluge of modern paganism. The greater part of the Muslim world is under direct or indirect domination of non‑Muslims. The sad signs described in a prediction of al‑Imam `Ali (A) have already come true:

A time will come when nothing will remain of the Qur'an except its script, and nothing of Islam except its name. The mosques in those days will be flourishing with regard to architecture, but desolate with regard to guidance. Those staying in them and those visiting them will be the worst of all on the earth. From them mischief will spring up and towards them all wrong will turn. If anyone isolates himself from it (mischief) they will fling him back towards it, and if anyone hesitates, they will push him towards it

About Muharram

Muharram festival commemorates the martyrdom of Hazrat Imam Hussain, the grandson of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him). This festival starts at the 1st day of Muharram and lasts for 10 days until 10th of Muharram. Muharram is the first month of Islamic calendar.

During this month, while on a journey, Hazrat Imam Hussain, his family members and a number of his followers were surrounded by the forces of Yazid, the Muslim ruler of the time. During the siege, they were deprived of food and water and many of them were put to death. The incident happened at a place called Karbala in Iraq in 61st year after Hijra. This dispute was result of a disagreement among Muslims on the question of succession after the demise of Hazrat Ali, the fourth caliph.

Some sects of Muslims hold meetings where speeches are made on the happenings of Karbala and on the lives of martyrs. The Shias, however, observe this festival in a different fasion. As Muharram, the first month of the Muslim year, approaches, they put on black clothes, as black is regarded as a color of mourning. Majalis (assemblies) are held every day during the first nine days where shia orators relate the incident of the martyrdom of Hazrat Imam Hussain and his party in a great detail. On the 10th day of Muharram, large processions are formed and the devoted followers parade the streets holding banners and carrying models of the mausoleum of Hazrat Imam Hussain and his people, who fell at Karbala. They show their grief and sorrow by inflicting wounds on their own bodies with sharp metal tied to chain with which they scourge themselves. This is done in order to depict the sufferings of the martyrs. It is a sad occasion and everyone in the procession chants "Ya Hussain", with loud wails of lamentation. Generally a white horse beautifully decorated for the occasion, is also included in the procession, to mark the empty mount of Hazrat Imam Husain after his martyrdom.

During these first ten days of Muharram, drinking posts are also set up temporarily by the Shia community where water and juices are served to all, free of charge

Significance of the Months of Muharram & Safar in Islam

The months of Muharram and Safar offer the yearly opportunity to commemorate the martyrdom of al‑Husayn ibn `Ali (A), the grandson of the Prophet (S) and the third Imam of the Shiite Muslims, at Karbala' on the tenth of Muharram in the year 61. The tragedy and heroism of the event, the resistance and self‑sacrifice of the martyrs, are remembered during these days by the Shi`ah and the Ahl al‑Sunnah alike, and by the Shi`ah with a special ardour, fervour and enthusiasm.

It would not be an exaggeration to say that the ardour and enthusiasm inspired by the martyrs of Karbala' is something unsurpassed in the history of religions. No individual or group in the history of the world has attracted such sustained admiration and love in the hearts of their followers as the martyrs of Karbala' and in particular the figure of al‑Husayn ibn `Ali (A), an admiration which has not dwindled in the course of more than thirteen and a half centuries that have elapsed since that event.

Excellences of the Imam Husayn

HUMAN history may be seen as a record of the eternal struggle between right and wrong, virtue and vice, good and evil, and righteousness and wickedness. This struggle was decreed by God when Adam, an earthly creature, was sent to earth to engage in this eternal battle. It is through this struggle that human beings can earn their eternal bliss in the Gardens of Paradise, or their eternal punishment in the Fire. In the history of nations this struggle often attains universal significance as that moment of the struggle can speak to all subsequent times and situations. Thus the Qur'an urges us over and over again to ponder the end of those who were before us, and how God dealt with them. In every case, moreover, a prophet or messenger of God was rejected by his people and killed or driven out. In this sense, therefore, the struggle is in the end between God and humankind, between truth and falsehood, and between right guidance and manifest error.
Nowhere is this struggle placed in sharper relief than in the life of the Prophet Muhammad, and the lives of the people of his House. The life and witness of the Imam Husayn in particular, has acquired special significance in Muslim piety. This is because he has provided a model for all martyrs in the way of God, for all time.
The purpose of this paper is to emphasize the universal significance of the Imam in Muslim tradition. It is important to observe that all the traditions cited in this essay are found in both Shi'i and Sunni hadith literature. But while in the Sunni community such traditions remain purely pietistic, Shi'i tradition has made them the basis of a complex theological system.
However, to appreciate the place of Husayn, 'the prince of martyrs', in Muslim history, a word must be said about the place of the Prophet's family (the ahl al-bayt) in Muslim piety. At the same time the people of the House of the Prophet Muhammad are not unique in the prophetic history of human societies. A word is, therefore, necessary concerning the families of other prophets, if we are to appreciate fully the devotion which Muslims throughout their long history have accorded the people of the House of Muhammad, the seal of the prophets.
Prophetic history begins, according to the Qur'an, with Adam, called safwat Allah (the elect of God). He was followed by Noah, the first of the prophets of power or resolve (ulu al-'azm). Noah was sent as a messenger by God to his people who rebelled against God's message, and were thus destroyed by the flood. Then came Abraham, the father of prophets. With his son Ishmael he built the Ka'ba, the first house for the worship of God.[1] Ishmael was also a prophet, and the ancestor of the prophets Shu'ayb, Salih, Hud, and finally Muhammad, the last messenger of God to humankind.
Isaac, Abraham's second son, was also a prophet and the father of prophets. Among his descendants were the family of 'Imran, the father of Moses, and Jesus, as well as other earlier prophets who were sent by God to the Children of Israel. The Qur'an declares that God has elected Adam, Noah, the family of Abraham and the family of 'Imran. It further states that they were a single progeny, one from the other'.[2] All the prophets and their families are therefore of one physical and spiritual lineage They and their households are the elect of God, purified and honoured over the rest of humankind.
The people of the House of the Prophet Muhammad were likewise chosen by God and purified from all evil and sin. The Muslim community did not, however, infer the status of the family of Muhammad from that of earlier prophets and their families.
Rather they too were chosen by God and purified from all evil and sin. Yet because Muhammad was the last prophet sent to guide humanity to God and the good, his descendants could not assume his prophetic role. Their mission was to be the Imams, or guides, of the Muslim community. Their task is to safeguard the message vouchsafed to Muhammad by God for humankind. Like many prophets, the Imams had to endure rejection by their people and much suffering at their hands; martyrdom in the cause of God was often their lot. Yet the greater the suffering, the greater is the reward and honour which God promises His prophets, friends (awliya'), and righteous servants. Thus the Prophet was asked: 'Who among men are those afflicted with the greatest calamity?' He replied:
The prophets, then the pious, everyone according to the degree of his piety. A man is afflicted according to his faith (din); if his faith is durable, his affliction is accordingly increased, and if his faith is weak, his affliction is made lighter. Afflictions continue to oppress the worshipful servant until they leave him walking on the face of the earth without any sin cleaving to him. [3]

Hasan and Husayn

Islamic tradition has preserved numerous anecdotes depicting the tender care and love which the Prophet showed Hasan and Husayn. They were both born in Medina, and thus knew the Prophet only as children. It is therefore with the intimacy and love of a grandfather that the early life of the two Imams is coloured. Once more, these family anecdotes also reflect clearly the theological and political tension within the community, a tension which largely centered around Hasan and Husayn. One such anecdote is the following.
One day, we are told, Hasan and Husayn were lost, and their mother Fatima came to the Prophet greatly alarmed. The angel Gabriel, however, came down and told the Prophet that the two youths were asleep in an animal fold some distance away. God, the angel reassured the anxious family, had charged an angel to keep watch over them. The Prophet went to the spot and found the angel had spread his two wings: one under them and the other over them as cover. The Prophet stooped over the two children and began to kiss them until they awoke. He then carried them on his shoulders back to the city. A large crowd of Muslims followed the Prophet and his two grandsons to the mosque. The Prophet then addressed the assembled people and said: 'O Muslims, shall I inform you of those who have the best grandfather and grandmother of humankind?' 'Yes, O Apostle of God', they all replied. 'They are Hasan and Husayn', he said. 'Their grandfather is the Apostle of God, the seal of the Messengers, and their grandmother is Khadija, daughter of Khuwaylid, mistress of the women of Paradise.' The Prophet then declared Hasan and Husayn to have the best maternal uncle and aunt: Jafar and Umm Hani', son and daughter of Abu Talib. Their maternal uncle and aunt were likewise the best of all uncles and aunts: they were al-Qasim, son of the Messenger of God, and Zaynab, daughter of the Apostle of God. The Prophet concluded: 'O God, you know that Hasan and Husayn shall be in Paradise, their uncles and aunt shall be in Paradise, and those who love them shall be in Paradise, while those who hate them shall be in the Fire." [18]
Abu Hurayra, the famous hadith transmitter, related that often when they prayed behind the Messenger of God Hasan and Husayn would jump on his back while he was prostrate in prayer. When he lifted his head, he would move them gently and place them beside him.
One evening, after prayers, Abu Hurayra offered to take the two youths home, but the Prophet wished them to stay. Soon, however, a flash of lightning illuminated the sky, and they thus walked in its light until they entered their home. [19]
The friends (awliya') of God, like the prophets, are favoured with miracles. These are not miracles proper (mu'jizat), but rather karamat (divine favours). The lightning incident was one such divine favour by means of which the Prophet wished to inform the community of the special status with which God had favoured the two Imams.
There is a unity between the Prophet and the ahl al-bayt, a unity not simply of blood, but also of the spirit. It is a unity symbolized by the kisa' event. It is, therefore, a unity of love, as the following statement of the Prophet clearly indicates. He said, as related on the authority of Salman the Persian: 'Whoever loves Hasan and Husayn, I love him, and whomsoever I love, God also loves, and whomsoever God loves, He shall cause him to enter into the gardens of bliss.' Likewise he who hates Hasan and Husayn shall be consigned to the Fire, because both God and his Messenger will hate him, 'and a terrible punishment awaits him'. [20]
Muslim hagiographical piety extended this unity and intimacy between the Prophet and his two grandchildren to include the angels of heaven. Thus Hudhayfa, a well known companion and traditionist, reported that the Prophet said: 'An angel is here who never came down to earth before this night. He sought permission from his Lord to come down and greet me, and to bring me the glad tidings that Fatima is the mistress of the women of Paradise, and that Hasan and Husayn are the masters of the youths of Paradise.' [21]
There is no doubt that the special status of the Imam Husayn in Muslim piety and devotion has in large measure been due to the Imam's great sacrifice of family, wealth, and life itself in the way of God. Husayn's martyrdom - his courage, steadfastness, dignity, and true devotion in times of great crisis - have inspired Muslims of all walks of life. Husayn has inspired the best poetry in all Islamic languages; even non-Muslim poets celebrated his great virtue and valour. Above all, however, the Imam Husayn's martyrdom became a source of strength and endurance for Muslims in times of suffering, persecution and oppression. He has stood with every wronged man or woman before oppressive rulers, reproaching wrongdoers and encouraging the oppressed to persist in their struggle for freedom and dignity. The following encounter between Zayd b. Arqam, a venerable companion of the Prophet, and 'Ubayd Allah b. Ziyad is a living testimony to the struggle between illegitimate authority and the power of right. When the head of the Imam Husayn was brought before him, Ibn Ziyad began to poke its teeth and lips with a stick.
Zayd protested: 'Take away your stick! For, by God, I saw the Apostle of God often kiss these lips.' Saying this, Zayd began to weep. Ibn Ziyad reprimanded him, saying: 'May God cause your eyes to weep! Had it not been that you are an old and senile man, I would have cut off your head.' Zayd then walked away, exclaiming: 'O men, you are slaves after this day. For you have slain the son of Fatima and set as amir over you the son of Marjana [i.e., Ibn Ziyad]. By God, he shall kill the best of you and enslave the most wicked among you. Perish those who accept humiliation and shame.' Zayd then said, 'O Ibn Ziyad, I shall tell you something that will enrage you even more. I saw the Apostle of God seating Hasan on his left leg and Husayn on his right, and say, "O God, I commend them and the most righteous of the people of faith to your trust." How have you dealt with the trust of the Prophet, O Ibn Ziyad?' [22]
Divine wisdom in creation can be best discerned, according to the Qur'an, in the order of nature, and in the human individual and his society. Muslim hagiography has recorded the dramatic effect the death of Husayn had on nature. Thus the famous traditionist al-Bayhaqi reported that when al-Husayn b. 'Ali was killed, the sun was so deeply eclipsed that stars were seen at midday. People feared that it was the Day of Resurrection.[23] Nadra al-Azdiya, a woman who was contemporary with the Imam Husayn, is said to have reported: 'When al-Husayn b. 'Ali was killed, the sky rained down blood, so that next morning we found our wells and water jugs filled with it.' [24]
The memory of the martyred Imam has been kept alive and nourished by the tears of the faithful who vicariously share in the tragedy of the Imam Husayn and his loved ones and friends. Here again, tradition has extended the grief displayed by the pious for the tragedy of Karbala' to the cosmic order. Thus al-Suyuti reports in his commentary on the verse describing God's compassion towards the ancient martyr John son of Zachariah that 'The heavens did not weep for the death of anyone except John son of Zachariah and al-Husayn b. 'Ali. Its redness [at sunset] is the sign of its weeping.'[25]

Imam Hussain

Name: al-Husayn, Hussain
Title: Sayyidu'sh-Shuhada'.
Father' s name: Hazrat Ali Amir al-Mu'minin.
Mother's name: Hazrat Fatimah (daughter of the Holy Prophet).
Birth: In Medina on Thursday, 3rd Sha'ban 4 AH.
Death: Martyred in Karbala' (Iraq) at the age of 57, on Friday, 10th Muharram 61 AH and buried there.

In the house of the Holy Prophet, which presented the best image of both the worlds - the heaven and the earth- a child who benefited humanity as if he was a Divine Impression reflecting the earth, was born on one of the nights of the month of Sha'ban. His father was Imam 'Ali, the best model of kindness towards his friends and the bravest against the enemies of Islam, and his mother was Hadrat Fatimah, the only daughter and child of the Holy Prophet, who had as universally acknowledged, inherited the qualities of her father. Imam Husayn, is the third Apostolic Imam. When the good news of his birth reached the Holy Prophet, he came to his daughter's house, took the newly-born child in his arms, recited adhan and iqamah in his right and left ears respectively, and on the 7th day of his birth, after performing the rites of 'aqlqah, named him al-Husayn, in compliance with Allah's command. 'Abdullah ibn 'Abbas relates: "On the very day when Imam Husayn was born, Allah ordered angel Gabriel to descend and congratulate the Holy Prophet on His Behalf and on his own.
While descending, Gabriel passed over an island where the angel Futrus had been banished due to his delay in executing a commission assigned by Allah. He was deprived of his wings and expelled to the island where he remained for several years praying and worshipping Allah and asking for His forgiveness. "When the angel Futrus saw Gabriel, he called out, ' Where are you going, O Gabriel?' To this he replied, ' Husayn, the grandson of Muhammad is born, and for this very reason Allah has commanded me to convey His congratulations to His Apostle.' Thereupon, the angel said, ' Can you carry me also along with you? May Muhammad recommend my case to Allah.' Gabriel took the angel along with him, came to the Holy Prophet, offered congratulations to him on behalf of Allah and himself and referred the case of the angel to him.
The Holy Prophet said to Gabriel, 'Ask the angel to touch the body of the newly-born child and return to his place in Heaven.' On doing this, the angle re-obtained his wings instantly and praising the Holy Prophet and his newly- born grandson, ascended towards the Heaven. Hasan and Husayn, the two sons of the Holy Imam 'Ali ibn Abi Talib and Hadrat Fatimah, our Lady of Light, were respected and revered as the 'Leaders of the Youths of Paradise' as stated by the Holy Prophet. The Holy Prophet Muhammad, peace be Upon him and his progeny, had openly prophesied that the faith of Islam would be rescued by his second grandson Husayn, when Yazid, son of Mu'awiayh, would endeavour to destroy it. Yazid was known for his devilish character and brutish conduct. He was known as the most licentious of men. The people having known and understood the character of Yazid, formed a covenant by which Mu'awiyah could not appoint Yazid as his successor. This undertaking was given by Mu'awiyah to Imam Hasan from whom Mu`awiyah had snatched power. Mu'awiyah violated this undertaking and nominated Yazid who succeeded his father. Immediately as he came to power, Yazid began acting in full accordance with his known character. He started interfering in the fundamentals of the faith and practiced every vice and wickedness freely with the highest degree of impunity and yet held himself out as the successor of the Holy Prophet, demanding allegiance to himself as the leading guide of the faith.
Paying allegiance to Yazid was nothing short of acknowledging the devil as Cod. If a divine personality like the holy Imam Husayn had agreed to his authority, it would be actually recommending the devil to humanity in place of Cod. Yazid demanded allegiance from the Holy Imam Husayn, who could have never agreed to it at any cost. The people fearing death and destruction at the hands of the tyrant had yielded to him out of fear. Imam Husayn said that come what- ever may, he would never yield to the devil in place of God and undo what his grandfather, the Holy Prophet had established. The refusal of the Holy Imam to pay allegiance to this fiend, marked the start of the persecution of the Holy Imam. As a result he had retired to Medina where he led a secluded life. Even here he was not allowed to live in peace, and was forced to seek refuge in Mecca where also he was badly harassed, and Yazid plotted to murder him in the very precincts of the great sanctuary of Ka'bah.
In order to safeguard the great sanctuary, Imam Husayn decided to leave Mecca for Kufah just a day before tile haj (pilgrimage). When asked the reason for the mysterious departure from Mecca foregoing the pilgrim- age which was only the next day Imam Husayn said that he would perform this year's pilgrimage at Karbala', Offering the sacrifice not of any animals, but of his kith and kin and some faithful friends. He enumerated the names of his kith and kin who would lay down their lives with him in the great sacrifice at Karbala'. The people of Kufah getting tired of the tyrannic and satanic rule of Yazid, had written innumerable letters and sent emissaries to Imam Husayn to come over and give them guidance in faith. Although Imam
Husayn knew the ultimate end of the invitations, he as the divinely chosen Imam could not refuse to give the guidance sought for. When the Holy Imam with his entourage had reached karbala', his horse mysteriously stopped and would not move any further. Upon this the holy Imam declared: "This is the land, the land of sufferings and tortures." He alighted from his horse, and ordered his followers to encamp there saying: Here shall we be martyred and our children be killed. Here shall our tents be burned and our family arrested. This is the land about which my grandfather the Holy Prophet had foretold, and his prophecy will certainly be fulfilled."
On the 7th of Muharram water supply to the lmam's carnp was cut and the torture of thirst and hunger started. the holy Imam's camp consisted of ladies, innocent children including babies and some male members of the Holy prophet's family; along with a small band of some faithful friends of Imam Husayn who had chosen to die with the Holy Imam, fighting against the devil for the cause of Allah.

10th of Muharram

At dawn the Imam glanced over the army of Yazid and saw 'Umar ibn Sa'd ordering his forces to march to wards him. He gathered his followers and addressed them thus: "Allah has, this day, permitted us to be engaged in a Holy War and He shall reward us for our martyrdom. So prepare yourselves to fight against the enemies of Islam with patience and resistance. O sons of the noble and self-respecting persons, be patient ! heath is nothing but a bridge which you must cross after facing trials and tribulations so as to reach Heaven and its joys. Which of you do not like to go from this prison (world) to the lofty palaces (Paradise ) ? " Having heard the Imam's address, all his companions were overwhelmed and cried out, "O our Master! We are ail ready to defend you and your Ahlu 'I-hayt, and to sacrifice our lives for the cause of Islam." Imam Husayn sent out from his camp one after an- other to fight and sacrifice their lives in the way of the Lord. Lastly, when all his men and children had laid down their lives, Imam Husayn brought his six-month old baby son 'Ali al-Asghar, and offering him on his own hands, demanded some water for the baby, dying of thirst. The thirst of the baby was quenched by a deadly poisoned arrow from the brute's forces, which pinned the baby's neck to the arm of the helpless father. At last when the six-month old baby also was killed, Imam Husayn addressed Allah: "O Lord! Thy Husayn has offered in Thy way whatever Thou hath blessed him with. Bless Thy Husayn, O Lord! with the acceptance of this sacrifice.
Everything Husayn could do till now was through Thy help and by Thy Grace." Lastly, Imam Husayn came into the field and was killed, the details of which merciless slaughter are heart rending. The forces of Yazid having killed Imam Husayn, cut and severed his head from his body and raised it on a lance. The severed head of the Holy Imam began glorifying Allah from the point of the lance saying, 'Allahu Akbar'. "All glory be to Allah Who is the Greatest!" After the wholesale, merciless and most brutal slaughter of the Holy Imam with his faithful band, the help- less ladies and children along with the ailing son of Imam Husayn, Imam 'Ali Zaynu 'l-'Abidin, were taken captives.

Some Sayings of the Holy Prophet During his Lifetime with Reference to Imam Husayn

1. Hasan and Husayn are the Leaders of the Youths of Paradise.
2. Husayn is from me and I am from Husayn, Allah befriends those who befriend Husayn and He is the enemy of those who bear enmity to him.
3. Whosoever wishes to see such a person who lives on earth but whose dignity is honoured by the Heaven- dwellers, should see my grandson Husayn.
4. O my son! thy flesh is my flesh and thy blood is my blood; thou art a leader, the son of a leader and the brother of a leader; thou art a spiritual guide, the son of a spiritual guide and the brother of a spiritual guide; thou art an Apostolical Imam, the son of an Apostolical Imam and the brother of an Apostolical Imam; thou art the father of nine Imams, the ninth of whom would be the Qa'im (the last infallible spiritual guide).
5. The punishment inflicted on the murderer of Husayn in Hell would be equal to half of the total punishment to be imposed on the entire sinners of the world.
6. When the Holy Prophet informed Hadrat Fatimah of the martyrdom in store for his grandson, she burst into tears and asked, "O my father ! when would my son be martyred?" "In such a critical moment," replied the Holy Prophet, "When neither I nor you, nor 'ALI would be alive." This accentuated her grief and she inquired again, "Who then, O my father, would commemorate Husayn's martyrdom? " The Holy Prophet said, "The men and the women of a particular sect of my followers, who will befriend my Ahlul-Bayt, will mourn for Husayn and commemorate his martyrdom each year in every century."

Islamic Months

islamic months and meaning

The Islamic year has twelve months that are based on a lunar cycle. Allah says in the Qur'an:
"The number of months in the sight of Allah is twelve (in a year) - so ordained by Him the day He created the heavens and the earth...." (9:36).

"It is He Who made the sun to be a shining glory, and the moon to be a light of beauty, and measured out stages for it, that you might know the number of years and the count of time. Allah did not create this except in truth and righteousness. And He explains His signs in detail, for those who understand" (10:5).

And in his final sermon before his death, the Prophet Muhammad said, among other things, "With Allah the months are twelve; four of them are holy; three of these are successive and one occurs singly between the months of Jumaada and Sha'ban."

Islamic months begin at sunset of the first day, the day when the lunar crescent is visually sighted. The lunar year is approximately 354 days long, so the months rotate backward through the seasons and are not fixed to the Gregorian calendar. The months of the Islamic year are:

1. Muharram
("Forbidden" - it is one of the four months during which it is forbidden to wage war or fight)

2. Safar
("Empty" or "Yellow")

3. Rabia Awal
("First spring")

4. Rabia Thani
("Second spring")

5. Jumaada Awal
("First freeze")

6. Jumaada Thani
("Second freeze")

7. Rajab
("To respect" - this is another holy month when fighting is prohibited)

8. Sha'ban
("To spread and distribute")

9. Ramadan
("Parched thirst" - this is the month of daytime fasting)

10. Shawwal
("To be light and vigorous")

11. Dhul-Qi'dah ("The month of rest" - another month when no warfare or fighting is allowed)

12. Dhul-Hijjah
("The month of Hajj" - this is the month of the annual pilgrimage to Mecca, again when no warfare or fighting is allowed)

Day of Ashurah

Although Muharram is a sanctified month as a whole, yet, the 10th day of Muharram is the most sacred among all its days. The day is named `Ashurah`. According to the Holy Companion Ibn `Abbas, Radi-Allahu anhu. The Holy Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him), when migrated to Madinah, found that the Jews of Madinah used to fast on the 10th day of Muharram. They said that it was the day on which the Holy Prophet Musa (Moses), alayhis salam, and his followers crossed the Red Sea miraculously and the Pharaoh was drowned in its waters. On hearing this from the Jews, the Holy Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him), said, "We are more closely rotated to Musa, alayhi salam, than you," and directed the Muslims to fast on the day of `Ashura`. (Abu Dawood)
It is also reported in a number of authentic traditions that in the beginning, fasting on the day of `Ashura` was obligatory for the Muslims. It was later that the fasts of Ramadan were made obligatory and the fast on the day of Ashura` was made optional. Sayyidina `Aisha, Radi-Allahu anha, has said:
When the Holy Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him), came to Madinah, he fasted on the day of `Ashura` and directed the people to fast. But when the fasts of Ramadan were made obligatory, the obligation of fasting was confined to Ramadan and the obligatory nature of the fast of `Ashura` was abandoned. Whoever so desires should fast on it and any other who so likes can avoid fasting on it." (Sunan Abu Dawud)However, the Holy Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him), used to fast on the day of `Ashura` even after the fasting in Ramadan was made obligatory. Abdullah ibn Musa, Radi-Allahu anhu, reports that the Holy Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him), preferred the fast of `Ashura` on the fasts of other days and preferred the fasts of Ramadhaan on the fast of `Ashura`. (Bukhari and Muslim)
In short, it is established through a number of authentic ahadith that fasting on the day of `Ashura` is Sunnah of the Holy Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him), and makes one entitled to a great reward.According to another Hadith, it is more advisable that the fast of `Ashura` should either be preceded or followed by another fast. It means that one should fast two days: the 9th and 10th of Muharram or the 10th and 11th. The reason of this additional fast as mentioned by the Holy Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him), is that the Jews used to fast on the day of`Ashura alone, and the Holy Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him), wanted to distinguish the Muslim way of fasting from that of Jews. Therefore, he advised the Muslims to add another fast to that of `Ashura`.Some traditions signify another feature of the day of `Ashura. According to these traditions, one should be more generous to his family by providing more food to them on this day as compared to other days. These traditions are not very authentic according to the science of Hadith. Yet, some Scholars like Baihaqi and Ibn Hibban have accepted them as reliable.

Prophet Muhammad Saying about Month Of Muharram

With the sighting of the new moon the Islaamic new year is ushered in. The first month Muharram is one of the four sacred months that Allah has mentioned in the Holy Qur’aan:

Lo.’ The number of the months with Allah is twelve months by Allah ‘s ordinance in the day that He created the heavens and the earth. Four of them are sacred: that is the right religion. So wrong not yourselves in them. (9:36)

The specification of these four sacred months is stated in a hadeeth narrated by Abu Bakrah radhiyallahu anhu ; Verily time has completed its cycle and returned to its original stage as it was on the day Allah created the heavens and the earth. The year consists of twelve months, four of which are sacred. Three of them occur consecutively; Zil Qa’dah, Zil Hijjah and Muharram , (the fourth being) Rajab of Mudhar (named after the tribe of Mudhar as they used to respect this month) which occurs between Jamadiul Aakhir and Sha’baan. (Bukhari Vol.2 Page 622)

From out of the four sacred months, Muharram has been blessed with certain specific virtues. The Holy Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam said: The best of fasts besides the month of Ramadhaan is the fasting of Allah’s month of Muharram and the best of salaat besides the fardh (compulsory) salaat is the tahajjud salaat (performed after midnight before dawn). Muslim Vol.1 Page 368

In another hadeeth, Ibne Abbas radhiyallahu anhu reports that the Messenger of Allah sallallahu alayhi wasallam said: He who fasts on the day of Arafah (9th Zil Hijjah), his fast will be a compensation for the sins of two years and the one that keeps a fast in the month of Muharram will receive the reward of thirty fasts for each fast (in this sacred month). Tabraani, At Targheeb WatTarheeb Vol.2 Page 114.

About Eid al Adha

What is Eid al-Adha
At the end of the Hajj (annual pilgrimage to Mecca), Muslims throughout the world celebrate the holiday of Eid al-Adha (Festival of Sacrifice). In 2008, Eid al-Adha will begin on approximately December 8th, and will last for three days.

What does Eid al-Adha commemorate?
During the Hajj, Muslims remember and commemorate the trials and triumphs of the Prophet Abraham. The Qur'an describes Abraham as follows:

"Surely Abraham was an example, obedient to Allah, by nature upright, and he was not of the polytheists. He was grateful for Our bounties. We chose him and guided him unto a right path. We gave him good in this world, and in the next he will most surely be among the righteous." (Qur'an 16:120-121)

One of Abraham's main trials was to face the command of Allah to kill his only son. Upon hearing this command, he prepared to submit to Allah's will. When he was all prepared to do it, Allah revealed to him that his "sacrifice" had already been fulfilled. He had shown that his love for his Lord superceded all others, that he would lay down his own life or the lives of those dear to him in order to submit to God.

Why do Muslims sacrifice an animal on this day?
During the celebration of Eid al-Adha, Muslims commemorate and remember Abraham's trials, by themselves slaughtering an animal such as a sheep, camel, or goat. This action is very often misunderstood by those outside the faith.

Allah has given us power over animals and allowed us to eat meat, but only if we pronounce His name at the solemn act of taking life. Muslims slaughter animals in the same way throughout the year. By saying the name of Allah at the time of slaughter, we are reminded that life is sacred.

The meat from the sacrifice of Eid al-Adha is mostly given away to others. One-third is eaten by immediate family and relatives, one-third is given away to friends, and one-third is donated to the poor. The act symbolizes our willingness to give up things that are of benefit to us or close to our hearts, in order to follow Allah's commands. It also symbolizes our willingness to give up some of our own bounties, in order to strengthen ties of friendship and help those who are in need. We recognize that all blessings come from Allah, and we should open our hearts and share with others.

It is very important to understand that the sacrifice itself, as practiced by Muslims, has nothing to do with atoning for our sins or using the blood to wash ourselves from sin. This is a misunderstanding by those of previous generations: "It is not their meat nor their blood that reaches Allah; it is your piety that reaches Him." (Qur'an 22:37)

The symbolism is in the attitude - a willingness to make sacrifices in our lives in order to stay on the Straight Path. Each of us makes small sacrifices, giving up things that are fun or important to us. A true Muslim, one who submits his or herself completely to the Lord, is willing to follow Allah's commands completely and obediently. It is this strength of heart, purity in faith, and willing obedience that our Lord desires from us.

What else do Muslims do to celebrate the holiday?
On the first morning of Eid al-Adha, Muslims around the world attend morning prayers at their local mosques. Prayers are followed by visits with family and friends, and the exchange of greetings and gifts. At some point, members of the family will visit a local farm or otherwise will make arrangements for the slaughter of an animal. The meat is distributed during the days of the holiday or shortly thereafter.

Hajj in Islam

Pilgrimage in Islam traditionally recognize as Hajj, which had been discussed in Quran with detail. What is its importance, background and reason perform is almost manipulated during centuries. Here a short synopsis of this pilgrimage known as Hajj in the light of Quran. The word Hajj is from Hujjat, which means to discuss and find the solution to the problems. At this annual event, must discuss the problems and find the solutions for the problems facing the Ummah. Annual program must be spelled out in front of the Ummah and in the subsequent year the goals achieved throughout the year should be presented at the next Hajj. This is the place where unified policy of the Muslim world must be charted out. It should become United Nations of Islam. This should be in addition to present rituals of Hajj.

Current Ritual (Back Ground): Every year about three million gather for the major pilgrimage, or Hajj .The Hajj is the Pilgrimage to Makkah and is the fifth of the "Five Pillars of Islam. The focal point of Makkah is the Kaaba, the "House of God" believed by Muslims to have been built by Abraham peace be upon him and his son Ishmael peace be upon him, and which is covered in a gold-embroidered black fabric. Pilgrims circle the Kaaba seven times and may also try to touch or kiss its cornerstone, the Black Stone the Black Stone (called Al-Hajarul Aswad in Arabic). The importance of Mecca for Muslims is inestimable. A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. The direction of prayer is known as the Qibla.

Hajj History

Each year, over 2.5 million Muslims descend in Mecca, Saudi Arabia for the annual Muslim pilgrimage, or Hajj. The largest gathering of humanity in any one time or place is the culminating spiritual experience for a Muslim, as well as a logistical challenge for the government of Saudi Arabia.
The Hajj has been performed by Muslims every year for the past 14 centuries. In earlier times, the Hajj was literally the journey of a lifetime, a dream for which a person spent an entire lifetime saving up the funds. The trip itself was an arduous and difficult one, often taking months or even years on horseback or on foot, through mountain terrain and desert. Gangs of bandits often attacked the routes to Mecca to extort money from the pilgrims.

"And proclaim the Pilgrimage among men. They will come to thee on foot and (mounted) on every kind of camel, lean on account of journeys through deep and distant mountain highways..." (Qur'an 22:27)

According to the Saudi Press Agency, as recently as 1950 the number of pilgrims during Hajj was less than 100,000. That number doubled by 1955, and in 1972 it had reached 645,000.

In 1983, the number of pilgrims coming from abroad exceeded one million for the first time. Due to the rapidly increasing numbers, in 1988 the Organization of Islamic Conference (OIC) passed a resolution to specify a pilgrims' quota for each country according to its population.

In recent years, Saudi Arabia has hosted over 1 million pilgrims from abroad as well as another million from within the Kingdom. The vast majority arrive by air (through the gateway city of Jeddah), with a small percentage arriving by land or sea.

Today, pilgrims come from all corners of the earth. Their organized groups are met by air-conditioned buses, travel with experienced guides, and stay in the many 5-star hotels around Mecca. Even the rites of the pilgrimage are more comfortable, with courtyards sheltered from the sun, air-conditioned walkways, escalators to the roof of the mosque, and cool marble floors on which to pray.

The Saudi government has spent nearly $25 billion on renovating and expanding the facilities for pilgrims. The worshippers fill all three levels, including the roof of the Mosque, and still spill onto the terraces, plazas, and streets in the surrounding area.

One might wonder if all the modernity has changed the Hajj experience, and made it less spiritual. Of course, those who travel today do not have the benefit of knowing what things were like before. Perhaps one type of hardship (traveling by foot in the desert heat) has been replaced by another (keeping safe and patient in the mass of people). But unanimously, those who have gone for Hajj come back speechless, unable to find the words to describe their experience. "You just have to be there to understand" is the common response to questions. While the facilities and terrain may have changed in modern times, the rites of pilgrimage and the bonds of brotherhood among the pilgrims have remained the same throughout history. Where else on earth can you find millions of people, different in language, race, color, gender, culture - but united in faith and purpose, acting with complete goodwill, discipline, generosity and brotherhood. That is the unique Hajj experience.

Performing the Hajj

Hajj is Islam's fifth principle. In other words, it is fard to go and visit the Kaba al- muazzama once in a lifetime. The second and later hajjes become supererogatory. The lexical meaning of hajj is 'to mean, to do, to wish.' In the Sharia it means to visit a certain place by doing certain things at a certain time. These certain things are called Manasik. Each of these Manasik, (that is, singular form of Manasik), is called Nusuk. Nusuk means worship. Hajj and Umra also are called nusuk. In the tenth year of the Hegira Rasulullah 'sallallahu alaihi wa sallam' went on hajj on his camel named Kuswa. It is written at the end of the chapter about Friday Prayer in the book Durr-ul-mukhtar, "A person who goes (to the Kaba) both for trade and for hajj gets thawab if hajj occupies the major part of his intention. [The amount of the thawab varies in proportion to the scope of the intention for hajj]. If his intention for trade is greater or if the two intentions are equal, he cannot attain the thawab for hajj. But if he fulfills its precepts he will have performed the fard only. Thus, he will escape the torment for not having done the fard. So is the case with the thawab for any worship or pious deed which is done for ostentation."

A person who performs the hajj is called a hajji. There are three kinds of hajjis:

1 - Mufrid hajji: a person who intends only for hajj when putting on the ihram. Inhabitants of Mecca can be mufrid hajji only.

2 - Qarin hajji: a person who intends both for hajj and for umra. First he performs the tawaf [Visiting, and going around the blessed Kaba at Mecca.] and sa'i [Performance of the course between Safa and Merva.] for umra and then, without taking off his ihram and without cutting his hair, performs the tawaf and sa'i again, this time for hajj on the days of hajj. There is more thawab for the qiran hajj than for either of the other two kinds.

3 - Mutamatti' hajji: he puts on the ihram to perform umra in the months of hajj, performs the tawaf and sa'i for umra, cuts his hair, and takes off his ihram. He does not go back to his home town (or country) but, on the day of tarwiya [The eighth day of Zu'l-hijja.], or earlier, in the same year, wears ihram for hajj, and performs the hajj like a mufrid hajji. Only, he performs the sa'i after the tawaf, too. Thawab for this tamattu' hajj is more than that of the ifrad hajj (first kind). The months for hajj are Shawwal and Zu'l-qada, plus the first ten days of Zu'l-hijja. It is wajib for the qarin and mutamatti' hajjis to perform the thanksgiving qurban. If they do not, they will have to fast on the seventh, eighth and ninth days of Zu'l-hijja and also for seven more days after the 'Iyd (of qurban). All these days add up to ten days. Meccans cannot be qarin or mutamatti' hajji.

Umra means the performance of the tawaf and sa'i with the ihram on and the shaving or cutting of the hair on any day of the year except the five days allotted for hajj. Doing umra once in a lifetime is sunnat muakkad in (the Madhhabs of) Hanafi and Maliki, while it is fard in Shafi'i and Hanbali. The hajj which is fard is called Hajj-i akbar or Hajjatul-Islam. Umra is called Hajj-i asghar.

The hajj has conditions, faraid (fards), wajibs, and sunnas. It has two kinds of conditions:

A - Conditions for incumbency. They are eight according to Imam azam:

1 - To be a Muslim.

2 - For a person living in a country of disbelievers to hear (or know) that the hajj is fard.

3 - To be discreet.

4 - To have reached the age of puberty.

5 - To be free; not to be a slave.

6 - In addition to the necessary livelihood, to have halal money sufficient for the round trip for hajj and also for the subsistence of the household who will be left at home. The prescribed necessary livelihood here is the same as that which is prescribed for zakat. [Please see the first chapter!] He who has haram property is liable not for the hajj but for returning the property to its rightful owner (or owners). A person who goes on hajj with haram property will escape the torment for not having performed the hajj but will not attain the thawab for hajj. It is similar to performing namaz at a usurped place. Such people should not be discouraged from worshipping. Sins do not debar worships. A person who doubts whether his money is halal must, as written in The Fatwa of Yahya Effendi, borrow money from a person whose earnings are halal, and spend it on the hajj to attain the thawab. And then he must pay his debt out of his doubtful money. [Pious Muslims have followed this procedure in defraying their needs.]

7 - For the time of hajj to have arrived. The time of hajj consists of five days: the 'Arafa day, and the (four) days of 'Iyd. The time spent on the way being taken into consideration, it becomes fard for a person who has the conditions for incumbency at the beginning of this time (for hajj) to go and perform the hajj once in his lifetime. A person who is in Dar-ul- Islam and who has property must know whether or not hajj is fard for him when the time for hajj comes.

8 - Not to be too blind, too ill, too old, or too disabled to go on hajj.

B - Conditions for performance are four:

1 - Not to be imprisoned or debarred.

2 - For the route to be taken for hajj and for the place of hajj to be safe and without danger. The hajj is not fard when one is compelled to go by dangerous means, by ship, train, bus or plane. During years when highwaymen attack the hajjis' lives and possessions it is not fard to go on hajj. But the murder of a few hajjis is not an excuse (for not going on hajj). On hajj, it is permissible to pay the tax or bribes charged for entering the country. Bribery is always permissible when it is for saving one's life or property. But it is sinful to ask for bribe.

3 - To go on hajj, a woman who lives in a place three-days-plus-three-nights' way (by walking) to Mecca has to be accompanied by her husband or by an eternally mahram relative whom she can never marry and who is not on record sinning. Also, the woman must be rich enough to meet his expenses too. A hadith, which is quoted by Bazzar in Kunuz ud-daqaiq, declares, "A woman cannot go on hajj without her mahram accompanying her." Because we live in an age when mischief and wrongdoing are on the increase, one should not travel with a person who is one's relative through marriage or rida. [A sucking from the same breasts with another. Becoming another person's foster brother or sister on this wise. There is detailed information about rida' in the Turkish original version of Seadet-i ebediyye, Part 2, Chapter 37.] The husband cannot prevent his rich wife from going on hajj with a mahram relative of hers once. For a husband does not have the right to prohibit his wife from doing the faraid. [Hadiqa, p. 591]. Again, it is written at the end of the chapter about the afflictions incurred through speech, "The husband can prohibit his wife from going on nafila (supererogatory) hajj with her mahram relative. If she goes with his permission, her livelihood will be provided by her husband throughout the course of her going and coming back, but not if she goes without his permission." Please see the section dealing with a marriage contract with stipulated conditions in the thirty-fourth chapter of the second part of the Turkish version. According to Shafi'i Madhhab, a woman without a mahram relative accompanying her can go on a hajj which is fard for her by joining two other women. It will be an excuse for a woman whose mahram dies on the way of hajj to imitate the Shafi'i Madhhab.

4 - For a woman not to be in the state of iddat, that is, not to be newly divorced.

By the year a person has the conditions for performance as well as the conditions for incumbency the hajj becomes fard for him. If he dies on his way to hajj in the same year, he becomes absolved from the hajj. In this case he does not have to request in his last will the sending of a deputy. But he becomes sinful if he does not go that year. If he puts off going on hajj until a few years later, he becomes gravely sinful. For, insisting on small sins causes grave sins. If he becomes ill, imprisoned, or disabled on his way for hajj or at home in one of the later years, he will have to send a deputy in his place or money from his country, or request it in his last will. If he recovers after sending the money, he will have to go in person, too. If he goes on hajj in a later year, his sin for delaying the hajj will be forgiven. According to Imam Muhammad and Shafi'i, it is permissible to put it off until later years.

Going on hajj is not fard for a person who does not have one of the conditions for incumbency. It is not necessary to provide the conditions for incumbency. For example, it is not necessary to accept the money or property that is presented to him so that he can perform the hajj. If a person has the conditions for incumbency but lacks one of the conditions for performance, it is not fard for him to go on hajj, but if this excuse continues till his death he has to send a Muslim as a deputy in his place or command in his last will that someone should be sent in his place. There are three kinds of worships:

1 - Worships that are only done physically, such as salat, fasting, reading the Qur'an, and dhikr. No one can do physical worships on someone else's behalf. Everyone has to do them himself. He cannot make someone else his deputy.

2 - Worships that are done only with property. Examples of these worships are zakat of property, zakat of body, namely, sadaqa fitr, zakat of landed property, namely, 'ushr, kaffarats such as emancipating slaves and feeding or clothing the poor. No matter whether or not a person has an 'udhr [Excuse (being incapable, imperfect).], his worships that are to be done with property can be done by someone else, even by a zimmi, on his behalf, with his permission and with his property.

3 - Worships that are done both physically and with property, such as the hajj that is fard. As long as a person is alive, it is only when he has an 'udhr that someone else can perform the hajj on his behalf with his permission and with his money. He who is not liable for hajj can send a deputy for the supererogatory hajj even when he has no 'udhr.

A person can give as a gift the thawab of his worships to a dead or alive person, such as salat, fasting, sadaqa, Qur'an al-karim, dhiqr, tawaf, hajj, umra, to visit the graves of awliya and giving a shroud for a dead person, even if they are fard or supererogatory for him, after having done or while doing any of them. But in the Madhhabs of Shafi'i and Maliki the thawab of worships that are done only physically cannot be given to someone else as a present. Imam-i Subki and the later Shafi'i savants (rahmat Allahi ta'ala alaihim ajmain) said that these also could be given as gifts. It is useless to have your worships done by payment or to sell the thawab of your worships to someone. It is a payment if you bargain before the worship is done. And it is to sell the worship if you bargain after doing the worship.

When putting on the ihram, the deputy has to intend with the heart for the person who has appointed him. A person who has the debt of hajj must command his trustee by giving him the name of the deputy who will perform the hajj on his behalf after his death. The dying person or his appointed non-inheriting trustee cannot make one of the inheritors his deputy unless the other inheritors approve of it. Unless a person countenances it, it is not permissible to send someone else for hajj on his behalf. But if the dead person has not made a will in this respect, that is, if he has not reserved money for hajj, his heir can go on hajj on his behalf or send someone else with the money from his share of the inheritance. Thus he will have saved his father or mother from the debt of hajj. If the hajj has become fard for himself, too, he has to go for himself in addition. But saving his parents from the debt of hajj will make him attain the thawab for ten hajjes. According to the Madhhabs of Hanafi and Hanbali, the (trip for) hajj must be started from the city they used to live in. For example, if a person living in Istanbul loses his father stationed in Erzurum, and if he wants to send someone as his father's deputy on hajj though his father did not request it in his will, it is fard for him to send the deputy from Erzurum. It is not permissible to send the deputy from some other place in the Madhhab of Hanafi. But in Shafi'i Madhhab it is permissible to send the deputy from any place except Miqat [Place where the hajjis assume the garb that is called ihram and worn during the rites of pilgrimage.]. In fact, it is permissible in Shafi'i Madhhab to give money to someone going on hajj and tell him to find a deputy in Mecca and have him perform the hajj from Miqat on behalf of your father. The Hanafis with little money can follow Shafi'i Madhhab and make someone in Mecca deputize for their father, mother, or other close relative who has not commanded it in his or her last will. Yet while giving the money they have to make their niyya: "I am following Imam Shafi'i."

If a person performs hajj on behalf of someone else without his permission, the hajj belongs to him. That is, if he has the debt of hajj he has paid it. He can present its thawab to the person he has deputized for. Any Muslim can present the thawab for any of his worships to any other Muslim dead or alive. But the person presented with the thawab (of hajj) will not be absolved from his debt of hajj. The trustee (wasi), that is, the person who has been enjoined on the will, sends the deputy commanded (by the owner of the will). And the deputy cannot send someone else on his behalf, unless he is told to do as he pleases. If the owner of the will has added the amendment, "My deputy or someone else," to his will, or if he has not appointed a deputy while enjoining his will on his trustee, his trustee can go himself as well as send someone else for the hajj. It is not permissible for a person for whom it is not fard to go on hajj to send someone else for the fard hajj on his behalf. A child who is discreet but below the age of puberty can be a deputy. It is not permissible to appoint a deputy by giving him a certain sum of money in the name of a payment (for his work). Estimating the cost of the journey and his subsistence during the course of the hajj, you say to the deputy, "With this money...." The money given to him now is not a payment but a donation. It is written in Ashbah: "The money left is returned to the inheritors. If the inheritors tell the deputy that they appoint him also as a deputy to present the rest of the money to himself and to accept it for himself, the deputy does as he is told." Though it is permissible in Hanafi for a person who has not made his own hajj and has not reached the age of puberty to be a deputy, it is not permissible in Shafi'i. It is permissible for the deputy not to come back but to remain in Mecca after making the hajj. But it is better to command him to come back. In Ukud-ud Duriyya, it is written, "Although it is permissible for a poor person who has not performed his duty yet to perform hajj instead of someone else, when he arrives in Hill, it will become fard for him also to perform hajj. In this case he will have to stay in Mecca and to perform his own hajj the next year. On the other hand, due to his staying and not returning home, after the previous hajj, the dead person's hajj will remain incomplete. If the deputy is told to do whatever he wishes, then the deputy may also delegate someone else." [If he finds a deputy in Mecca he performs his own hajj also in the same year]. A hajji's going on hajj as a deputy (for someone else) is better than his going on hajj once more for himself.

If a poor person goes on a supererogatory hajj, when he reaches Miqat he becomes like a Meccan and it becomes fard for him to make the hajj walking, and therefore he must make his niyyat to perform the fard. If he makes niyya (intends) to make supererogatory hajj, it becomes necessary for him to make hajj again. But the case is not so with a deputy who is poor. For, he has reached there, and will go back, with someone else's power. If a deputy, (that is, a person appointed by a rich person to make hajj on behalf of the rich person), has not made hajj for himself, he must stay in Mecca and one year later make the hajj for himself, too. The thawab for a rich person's hajj is greater than the thawab for a poor one's. If a poor person dies of hunger or exhaustion on his way to hajj, he becomes sinful. Going on hajj is makruh for a poor person who will be in need and will have to ask for help from others on the way. A deputy who has been given a choice can give the money to another person and send him instead, regardless of whether or not he becomes ill on the way. But he cannot send another person if he has not been given permission. A hajji who dies before standing on Arafat does not have to command in his last will that his hajj should be made, if his going on hajj and dying happen in the same year when the hajj becomes fard for him. But if he goes on hajj a few years after (the hajj has become fard for him), it will be wajib for him to command in his last will that a deputy should be sent from his own city. A deputy may as well be sent from the place he has appointed or from any place whence it is possible to send one with the money he has allotted. Words used in a will must be chosen with care.

In case one-third of a person's property would sufficiently meet the expense (of sending a deputy on hajj from his town), it is sinful for him, (while dying), to will the amount of money that will not suffice for sending a deputy from his town or to command that a deputy should be sent from some other place. If he did not appoint the place or the amount of money, a deputy is sent from his town, even if he died on his way for hajj. No one can go on hajj with his own money on behalf of a person who commanded his hajj while dying. If anyone does, hajj will belong to himself. The dead person's debt of hajj will not have been paid. The person who makes hajj can present its thawab to the dead person after the hajj. The dead person's hajj is performed by using one-third of the property left by him, or the money which he reserved from one-third of his property, and by starting the journey from his town. The deputy may as well add some of his own money to this. If the money reserved is insufficient a deputy can be sent from any place offering convenience. If it is still impossible, the (dead person's) will becomes invalid. If a person is alive but disabled (for hajj), he has to give the person he deputes enough money to enable him to go on hajj from his town. If the dead person did not add the stipulation that the hajj should be done by using the property he left behind, his inheritor can send a deputy with his own property, whether or not he has the intention to take the expense from one-third of the heritage. If he has the intention to take it from the dead person's property, he cannot go on hajj himself. In the hajjes of tamattu' and qiran the cost of the qurban belongs to the deputy. If the deputy swears that he has made the hajj he is to be believed. No one can ask him to return the money. A deputy who has been perfidious can be dismissed before the assumption of the ihram.

A person for whom zakat and hajj become fard, first goes on hajj, immediately, and then gives zakat of what is left from the hajj. If he cannot go on hajj, he gives all of the zakat. After the time for hajj has come, that is, after the hajj has become fard, it is not permissible to spend the money for hajj buying things one needs, such as a house or a year's supply of food. One has to go on hajj. But it is permissible to buy them before the time of hajj comes. For hajj does not become fard before its time comes.

It is necessary to provide the conditions for performing the hajj. But a woman does not have to get married or imitate the Shafi'i Madhhab in order to go on hajj. For, the husband does not have to take his wife on hajj. Nor is it permissible for her to contract a temporary marriage with a man going on hajj. This is written in Durr-ul-muntaqa.

If a person lacking one of the conditions for incumbency goes on hajj he has made a supererogatory hajj. He will have to make hajj again when the conditions are completed. If a person lacking one of the conditions for performance goes on hajj, he has performed the fard.

A woman cannot go on hajj without a man to accompany her. Her hajj will be accepted if she goes, but it is haram. When she goes with her husband (or eternally mahram relative), it is haram for her to join men in a hotel, during the tawaf and sa'i, or while throwing stones, which would not only annihilate the thawab for hajj but would also cost her a grave sin. A woman without any eternally mahram relatives sends a deputy in her place when she is old, when she cannot see any more, or when she catches an incurable disease. She does not send a deputy before then.

Hajj Has Three Faraid (Fards)

Hajj is not sahih if any one of these three faraid is not fulfilled.

1 - To make the hajj in an ihram. An ihram, like large bath towels, consists of two white pieces of cloth, one of which is wrapped around that part of the body below the waist and the other is wrapped around the shoulders. It is not fastened with thread or secured with knots. Before beginning the Tawaf, it is sunnat to wrap the Ihram round the upper part of body, with the middle part of the ihram under the right arm and its two ends on the left shoulder.

For people who come (to Mecca) from long distances for hajj, 'umra, trade or for any other purpose, it is haram to go through the places called Miqat and enter the Harem, that is, the blessed city of Mecca, without the ihram on. Any person who passes by (the miqat without the ihram on) has to return to the Miqat and put on the ihram. If he does not put on the ihram he will have to kill an animal of qurban. Between the places called Miqat and the Harem, that is, the city of Mecca, is called Hil. People who intend to remain in the Hil for some business while going through the Miqat and people who live in the Hil are permitted to enter the Harem without the ihram except when they intend for hajj. For example, the city of Jeddah is in the Hil. The Harem is a little larger than the blessed city of Mecca and its boundaries are determined by stones set up by the Prophet Ibrahim 'alaihis-salam.' The stones have been replaced many times. For hajj the inhabitants of the Hil put on the ihram in the Hil and those who live in the Harem put it on in the Harem. The ihram is assumed when passing through the places of miqat, intending in the prescribed way and saying the prescribed prayers. It is permissible -even better- to assume the ihram before reaching the places of miqat or even in your hometown (or country). It is permissible but makruh to assume it before the months of hajj.

A person wearing the ihram is prohibited from certain things. These prohibitions include killing the animals of hunt living on land, wearing sewn clothes, shaving any part of the body, having sexual intercourse, fighting or quarreling, using perfumes, cutting the nails, (for men) wearing mests or shoes, covering the head, washing the head with marshmallows, wearing gloves or socks, entering a bath, plucking or uprooting oats or trees growing by themselves, and killing the lice found on one's body or showing them to someone else so that he will kill them. Those who do these knowingly or unknowingly or by forgetting will have to pay a penalty by killing a qurban or giving alms. The owner can eat the meat of his qurban of tamattu' or qiran. But he cannot eat the meat of qurban which he has killed in payment of a penalty. If a qarin hajji commits a fault which necessitates one qurban in mufrid hajj, it becomes necessary for him to perform two qurbans, one of which is for the 'umra.

While in the ihram it is permissible to kill fleas or all kinds of flies, lice found on someone else, animals that are harmful or that would attack a man, such as mice, snakes, scorpions, wolves, kites, to wash your head with soap, to wear clogs or other shoes with open upper-part, to have your (aching) tooth extracted, to scratch yourself slightly provided you shall not kill lice or lose hair, to wear colored ihram, to make ghusl, to sit in the shade of a roof, a dent or an umbrella, provided your head shall not touch it, to cover your head with things that are not normally used as head-covers, [such as bowls and trays], to put a parcel or the like on your head, to wear a belt or sash round your waist, to carry a money purse, a sword or a gun tied on your waist, to wear a ring, to pluck or uproot the vegetables or trees sown or planted by people, to fight your enemy.

It is necessary for women to cover their heads and permissible to veil their face, provided the veil shall not touch the skin, to wear sewn clothes, mests, stockings, and ornaments under cover.

2 - On the day of Arafa to stay for Waqfa at any place of Arafat other than the place called Wadi-yi Urana after the early and late afternoon prayers. Like all others, you stand, or sit if you cannot stand, towards the imam, and listen to the prayers he will say. Then you can sit or lie down.

A person arriving late for hajj goes directly to Arafat. He does not have to perform the Tawaf-i- qudum. If a hajji stays at Arafat for a while within the time between the early afternoon prayer on the day of Arafa and the morning prayer on the first 'Iyd day or if he passes through Arafat with his ihram on or if after putting on the ihram falls asleep or faints and is carried on a stretcher or something else and is made to carry out the Manasik or if he gets sick or faints before putting on the ihram and someone else assumes the ihram and also carries out the Manasik on his behalf before he wakes up or if he stays at 'Arafat not knowing that it is 'Arafa day, his hajj becomes sahih and he gets absolved from the tawaf-i- qudum. It is not necessary to know that the place is 'Arafat or to intend. A person who is not at 'Arafat or who does not go through 'Arafat on that special day or night cannot be a hajji, nor can one who flies by there by plane. The hajj performed a day earlier, as Wahhabis have been doing for some years, is not acceptable. A new moon sets close to the setting point of the sun and after the time of sunset. Its puffed up part is on the western side. At tarbi' (i.e., on the seventh night) the moon sets six hours later than the sun. At Badr-i tam (on the 14th night) the moon becomes a full sphere and it rises while the sun sets and sets in the morning. The daily newspaper Turkiye of July 28, 1987, on a Tuesday, stated that "In the city of Kayseri, on Sunday the new moon of the month of Zu'lhijja was not seen. On Monday, the 19.50 p.m. At 20.20 p.m., the new moon was seen and it set at 20.55 p.m." According to this information (in 1987), the first day of the month of Zu'lhijja was Tuesday. Therefore, the ninth day of the month (Wednesday) became the day of Arafa. But the Wahhabi government took the hajjis to Arafat on Monday and they prevented the ones who wanted to visit it again on Wednesday.

3 - To make Tawaf-i-ziyarat to the Kaba. Tawaf means to go round the Kaba al- muazzama within Masjid al-Haram. Seven turns are made, four of which are fard and three are wajib. It is permissible to make the tawaf by taking the well of Zamzam and the Maqam-i-Ibrahim within the circle. It is written in the book Ashbah that it is better for women not to keep close to the Kaba while making the tawaf. If there is the risk of the men touching the women, it is necessary for those who are in the Shafi'i Madhhab to imitate one of the Hanafi and Maliki Madhhabs. It is not permissible to make the tawaf outside of Masjid al-Haram. It is fard in itself to make a niyya (to intend) for the tawaf. Also, it is fard to make tawaf-i-ziyarat after (standing at) 'Arafat. If the adhan is called as you are making the tawaf or the sa'i, you put it off and complete it after performing the namaz. It is written in the marginal notes by Tahtawi in the book Maraqilfalah, "There is the fear that a person who goes round any mosque other than the Kaba for worship may become a disbeliever."

Hajj Has Twenty-One Wajibs

1 - To make sa'i, that is, to walk in the prescribed way, seven times between the mounts of Safa and Marwa, provided this will be after the tawaf-i-qudum and within the months of hajj. Sa'i without tawaf is not sahih (valid).

2 - To perform (the rite termed) waqfa (pause) at Muzdalfa on the way back from 'Arafat. Muzdalfa is the place where the Prophet Adam first met the blessed Hawwa (Eve).

3 - To throw clean pebbles, or anything on which it is permissible to make tayammum, for three days at Mina.

4 - Before taking off the ihram, to shave at least one-fourth of your head or to cut or have someone cut at least three centimeters of your hair. It is not an excuse not to find a barber or a shaver. Even a person without any hair or with a sore on his head has to pass the shaver around his head without touching his head. Women do not shave or clip their hair. But they cut a little of it with scissors.

5 - For those hajjis who are Afaqi, that is, who come to Mecca from places that are farther from the places called Miqat, to make Tawaf-i-sadr, that is, Tawaf-i-wada' (farewell visit), the day before departing from Mecca. This tawaf is not wajib for a menstruating woman.

6 - To stay at 'Arafat for a while after sunset. It is written in the books Jawhara and Majmua-i- Zuhdiyya, "A person who leaves 'Arafat before sunset will have to kill a qurban. You can stay at 'Arafat when you are junub.

7 - During tawaf-i-ziyarat, to make three more turns after going round the Kaba al- muazzama four times. The night after tawaf-i-ziyarat is spent at Mina.

8 - Not to be without an ablution or a ghusl while making the tawaf.

9 - To have on clean clothes.

10 - To make the turns by taking the place called the Hatim within the circle while making the tawaf.

11 - To make the tawaf with the Kaba al-muazzama always on your left hand side.

12 - To have made the tawaf-i-ziyarat by the sunset of the third day of 'Iyd.

13 - To cover the awrat parts [See Chapter 8 of fourth fascicle of Endless Bliss.] while making the tawaf. This is very important for women.

14 - While making sa'i between the mounts of Safa and Marwa, to begin from Safa.

Getting on top of the mount of Safa, you turn towards the Kaba. You make takbir (say: "Allahu akbar") and tahlil (say: "la ilaha illallah"), and say the prayer of salawat. Then, stretching both arms forward on a level with your shoulders and opening your palms toward the sky, you say your prayers. Next you walk towards Marwa. You walk four times from Safa to Marwa and thrice from Marwa to Safa.

15 - To perform two rakats of namaz in the Masjid al-Haram after each tawaf.

16 - To do the devil-stoning (the Jumarats) during the 'Iyd days.

17 - To shave the head or cut the hair on the first day of 'Iyd and within the Harem.

18 - To make the sa'i walking. Men walk faster between the two green posts.

19 - For people making qiran or tamattu' hajj, to kill a qurban for thanksgiving.

20 - To kill the qurban on the first day of the 'Iyd.

21 - Doing such forbidden things as having sexual intercourse before staying at Arafat will nullify the hajj. It is fard not to do such things before staying at Arafat. It is wajib to forbear from those things other than sexual intercourse till after taking off the ihram and from intercourse till after making the tawaf-i-ziyarat.

A person who does not perform a wajib at its prescribed place and time, whether he knows it or not, is liable to punishment. The punishment is to kill a qurban or to give alms as much as the amount of fitra. Nothing is necessary when it (the wajib) is omitted for such reasons as illness, old age, or for the place to be overcrowded. [Nor is it necessary to have a deputy perform the wajib (one has omitted for such reasons)]. A woman in the state of haid (menstruation) or nifas (lochia) cannot enter the Masjid al-Haram. She performs the ordinances other than the tawaf and the sa'i. And she performs the tawaf and the sa'i when she is canonically clean. Each day's Manasik may as well be made on the night following it.

It is permissible to perform the fard or supererogatory namaz as well as to perform a namaz in jamaat in the Kaba. It may as well be performed by turning your back toward the imam's back. It is makruh to perform it by turning your back toward the imam's face or to perform it on top of the Kaba. While performing the salat by forming a circle round the Kaba, people other than those on both sides of the imam can be closer to the Kaba than the imam.

Hajj Has Eleven Sunnats

1 - For those who are afaqi (from distant places), to go directly into Masjid al-Haram and make Tawaf-i-qudum. While looking at the Kaba they say takbir, tahlil, and prayers. Men rub their hands and face gently on the Hajar-i-aswad. After the tawaf-i-qudum and two rakats of namaz, the sa'i between Safa and Marwa is performed. Then, without taking off their ihram, they stay in Mecca and make as many supererogatory tawafs as they like until the day of Tarwiya. Because the mufrid hajjis and the qarin hajjis cannot take off their ihram till after throwing pebbles and shaving their head (or cutting their hair), they have to avoid the things prohibited when in the ihram. People who cannot avoid such things had better become mutamatti' hajji. It is not sinful to pass in front of people who are performing salat in Masjid al-Haram.

2 - To begin the tawaf from Hajar-i-aswad and to end it there.

3 - For the imam to make the (the speech called) khutba at three places: The first in Mecca on the seventh day of Zu'l-hijja month; the second at 'Arafat when the time for the early afternoon prayer comes, before the early and late afternoon prayers on the ninth day, and the third at Mina on the eleventh day. At 'Arafat, when the khutba is over, the early afternoon prayer and immediately after this the late afternoon prayer are performed in jamaat. A person who is late for the jamaat performs the late afternoon prayer at the time of the late afternoon prayer. After the salat, the imam and the jamaat (congregation) leave Masjid an-Namra to go to Masjid al-Mawqif and, the imam sitting on an animal and the hajjis staying on the ground, standing or sitting, they perform the waqfa. It is better for the jamaat to be on animals, too. It is not necessary to mount the rocks of Jabal-i-rahma or to make niyya for the waqfa. [The salat which is performed behind the imam who belongs to a group of bidat should be repeated. For, it has been conveyed through hadith-i sharifs that worships performed by people who belong to a group of bidat will not be accepted.]

4 - To leave Mecca for 'Arafat on the day of Tarwiya, that is, on the eighth day of Zu'l- hijja, after the morning prayer. After Mecca you come to Mina.

5 - To sleep at Mina on the night before the 'Arafa day and on the nights of the first, second and third days of the 'Iyd. It is not obligatory to stay at Mina on the third night and day.

6 - To leave Mina for 'Arafat after sunrise.

7 - To sleep at Muzdalfa on the night of 'Arafa. You go from 'Arafat to Muzdalfa and, when the time for the night prayer comes, you perform the evening and night prayers one right after the other in jamaat. Those who have performed the evening prayer at 'Arafat or on the way have to perform it again together with the night prayer at Muzdalfa, in jamaat or alone.

8 - To stay for waqfa after dawn at Muzdalfa. Spending the night at Muzdalfa, you perform the morning prayer right after dawn and then perform the waqfa at a place called Mash'arilharam until it becomes rather light. Then you leave for Mina before sunrise. On the way you should not stop at the valley called Muhassar. This is the place to stop for the Ashab-i-fil. After coming to Mina, at a place called Jamra-i-aqaba, which is the farthest from the Masjid al-Khif, by using the thumb and the pointing finger of your right hand you throw seven pebbles as big as chick-peas at the foot of the wall marking the place of Jamra from a distance of two and a half meters or more. It is acceptable if they fall at the foot of the wall after striking the wall or a man or an animal. Though it is permissible to do the pelting any time until the dawn of the following day, it is sunnat to do it before noon of the first day. Then, leaving the place immediately, you slaughter a qurban if you like. For, it is not wajib for a safari person to perform the qurban. Because hajjis are safari, it is not wajib for a mufrid hajji to perform the qurban. After the performance of the qurban you shave your head (or cut your hair) and take off the ihram. Those who are at Mina on the first day of the 'Iyd and all hajjis do not perform the 'Iyd prayer. Then, the following day or the other day or the day after the other day, you go to Mecca and, after intending, make the Tawaf-i- ziyarat. This is also called the Tawaf-ul-ifada. It is makruh to postpone the tawaf- i-ziyarat and the haircutting till after the sunset of the third day of the 'Iyd, and doing this necessitates killing a qurban. It is only when you are unconscious that someone else may perform the tawaf on your behalf. You do not make Raml and Sa'i during the tawaf-i- ziyarat. After the salat of tawaf you return to Mina. You perform the early afternoon prayer in Mecca or at Mina. The khutba is made at Mina after the early afternoon prayer on the second day of the 'Iyd. After the khutba you throw seven pebbles at each of three different places. You begin with the place closest to the Masjid al-Khif. On the third day of the 'Iyd you throw seven more pebbles at each place, and the number of pebbles becomes forty- nine. It is not permissible, or it is makruh (according to some savants), to throw them before noon. You leave Mina before the sunset of the third day. It is mustahab to spend the fourth day at Mina, too, and to throw twenty-one more pebbles any time you like from dawn to sunset. If you stay at Mina until the dawn of the fourth day and leave the place without having thrown pebbles at all, you will have to kill a sheep. After throwing pebbles at the first place and at the second place you stretch forward your arms on a level with your shoulders and turn the palms to the sky or to the qibla, and say your prayers. The seventy pebbles to be thrown are picked up at Muzdalfa or on the way. It is permissible to throw the pebbles when on an animal. After the Tawaf-i-sadr you will drink from the water of Zamzam. You will kiss the threshold of the Kaba, and rub your chest and right cheek gently on a place called Multazam. Then, holding on to the curtain of the Kaba, you say the prayers you know and send your invocations. Then, while weeping, you go out the door of the Masjid.

Mina is to the north of Mecca; Muzdalfa is to the north of Mina, and 'Arafat is to the north of Muzdalfa. With the recently built asphalt roads, between Mina and Mecca is 4.5 kilometers, between Mina and Muzdalfa is 3.3 kilometers, between Muzdalfa and 'Arafat is 5.4 kilometers, between Safa and Marwa is three hundred and thirty meters, and between the arch on the mount of Safa and the Kaba is about seventy meters.

9 - To make a ghusl before the waqfa at 'Arafat.

10 - During the last return to Mecca from Mina, to stop at a valley called Abtah and stay there for a while. Thence you come to Mecca, and stay there as long as you like.

11 - Before setting out for hajj, it is a sunnat to ask for permission from your parents who are not in need, from your creditors, and from your surety. If your parents are needy it is haram to set out without their permission. Also, it will be haram to set out without your wife's permission if you do not leave subsistence with her. It is mustahab to enter Mecca through a door called Mu'alla, and the Masjid through the Babussalam and while it is daylight.

He who omits the sunnats of hajj is not liable to punishment. Yet it is makruh and causes a decrease in the thawab (not to do them). If the 'Arafa day coincides with a Friday it produces the thawab of seventy hajjes. It is common among the people to call this Hajj-i- akbar, which is not true.

Lying between two opposite combinations of mountains extending in a north-south direction, Mecca covers an area of three kilometers in length and one kilometer in width. Its stone-built houses have mostly three to four stories. In the center of the city is a great mosque named Masjid al-Haram. Masjid al-Haram is open on the top and has a yard which, like the yards of Istanbul's mosques, is surrounded by three rows of domes. The domes number five hundred and are supported by 462 pillars, of which 218 are made of slender marble, 224 are carved from a stone called Hajar-i-shams, six or eight angled, and yellow-colored. Masjid al-Haram has an oblong form, its north wall is 164 meters long, south wall 146 meters long, east wall 106 meters long, and west wall 124 meters long. Wahhabis in 1375 [1955 A.D.] extended these four walls, so that Safa and Marwa were included in the Masjid. Hence, the mosque became one hundred and sixty thousand square meters. The blessed mosque of Saint Sophia in Istanbul is 77 meters long and 72 meters wide, and the blessed SultanAhmad (blue) mosque is 72 meters long and 64 meters wide. Masjid al-Haram has nineteen doors, of which four are on the east wall, three on the west wall, five on the north wall and seven on the south wall. It has seven minarets. During the time of the Ottoman Empire, the distance between Mecca and the port of Jiddah was 75 km., between Medina and Jiddah 424 km., and between Medina and Badr 150 km. The shortest road between Mecca and Medina is 335 km. The coastal way by which Rasulullah migrated was 400 km. Mecca is 360 meters above the sea level. Medina is 160 kilometers inland from the coast.

Before the time of Hadrat 'Umar (radi-Allahu 'anh), Masjid al-Haram did not have any walls. Around the Kaba was a small square, which was surrounded by houses. The Caliph 'Umar had some of the houses demolished and had a one-meter-high wall built around the Kaba, and thus Masjid al-Haram was built. Masjid al-Haram was restored various times. Today's Masjid al-Haram, together with the eleventh restoration of the Kaba al-muazzama, was built in 1045 hijri [1635 A.D.], during the time of Sultan Murad Khan IV, the seventeenth Ottoman Emperor. Now Wahhabis, on the pretext of enlarging them, are demolishing and annihilating those historic Islamic works, building in their place things that have only materialistic value. At the cost of desecrating the Kaba al-muazzama, they are building taller houses and hotels.

The Kaba al-muazzama is a cubical room built of stone in the middle of Masjid al- Haram, and is 11.4 meters tall. Its north wall is 9.25 meters long, south wall 8.5 meters long, east wall 13.5 meters long, and west wall 13.3 meters long. On the corner of the east- south walls is the stone of Hajar-i-aswad, which is over one meter above the ground. With so many hajjis having kissed it, its surface is now rather concave. The Kaba has a door on the east wall. 1.88 meters above the ground, the door is 1.7 meters wide and 2.6 meters high. Its inner side, as well as the floor, is covered with colored marble. Its minaret-like spiral staircase near the corner called Rukn-i-Iraqi, which has twenty-seven stairs of which seven are made of marble and the rest of wood, was restored by Mustafa Khan II. To the right of the door is a hollow and three pillars reaching high up to the ceiling. The outer side of the Kaba is dressed with black silk tissue. The door is curtained with green satin.

The Zamzam well, also within Masjid al-Haram, is in a room opposite the corner of hajar-i-aswad and fourteen and a half meters away from the corner, and has a stone curb 1.9 meters high. Its diameter is two and a half meters long, and its depth is thirty meters. The room, built by Sultan Abd-al Hamid Khan I, who also had the Beylerbeyi Mosque built in Istanbul, has a floor covered with marble, sloping near the walls, and ending in gutters at the feet of the walls. The gutters are of such competent work that they do not let any water ooze into the well. The mouth of the well is about one meter and half above their level. This work of art, a valuable keepsake of history, was barbarously destroyed in 1383 [1963 A.D.] They lowered the mouth of the well and an area of several meters around it to a level several meters below the earth's surface.

The four corners of the Kaba are called the four rukns. The one pointing to Damascus is termed Rukn-i-Shami, the one pointing to Baghdad is termed Rukn-i-Iraqi, the one toward the Yaman is termed Rukn-i-Yamani, and the fourth corner is termed Rukn-i-hajar-il- aswad.

It is mustahab to drink Zamzam after the farewell tawaf. With hundreds of thousands of hajjis drinking the Zamzam, washing themselves with it, and taking lots of it to their countries, the water in the well cannot be exhausted. And now everyday the water has been pumped out day and night with a machine and a large-hose pipe, but it still does not seem to be exhaustible.

There is a Gold Gutter on the north wall of the Kaba. The space between this gutter and the curved small wall, which is below the gutter and in line with it, is called the Hatim. While making the tawaf it is necessary to make the turns outside of this Hatim wall.

The earth has only one Kaba. And it is in the city of Mecca al-mukarrama. To perform the hajj believers go to the city of Mecca al-mukarrama, and there they do the things commanded by Allahu ta'ala, and become hajjis. Disbelievers go to other countries and visit other places. They are not called hajjis. Muslims' acts of worship and disbelievers' irreligious acts are different things.

If people living in the Hil enter Mecca without the ihram it becomes wajib for them to make hajj or 'umra.

The final pages of the part entitled "Twin apples of the eyes of Muslims" in the Turkish book Ashab-i Kiram, give detailed information indicating that after making the hajj it is necessary to go to Medina-i-munawwara and visit the Prophet's blessed grave. The Hujra- i-saada (the Prophet's grave), being close to the east corner of the qibla wall of Masjid ash-Sharif, remains on the left side of a person who stands towards the qibla in the mihrab. And the Minbar remains on his right. The area between the Hujra-i-saada and the minbar is called Rawda-i-mutahhara. The Hujra-i-saada is enclosed by two walls, one within the other. There is a hole in the middle of to the ceiling of the inner wall. The outer wall reaching up to the ceiling of Masjid, its green dome can be seen from long distances. The outer walls and the high grating outside are screened with curtains called Sattara. No one can go inside the walls, for they have no doors. On the 384th page of the book Mirat-i Medina it is written that when Masjid as-saadat was first constructed, its width was 60 dhra' [25 meters], and its length 70 dhra' [29 meters]. Two months before the Battle of Badr, i.e. in the month of Rajab of the second year, after the heavenly order to change the qibla direction towards the Kaba was revealed, its door was moved from the north wall to the south wall, and the masjid's length and width were extended to a hundred dhra' [42 meters] each. This door is named Bab-ut-tawassul. During the restoration period of Walid bin Abdulmalik and the Abbasi Caliph Mahdi (rahmatullahi alaihim ajmain) in 165 [781], the masjid's length became 126 meters and its width 76 meters. Wahhabis extended it in 1375 [1955] and its length became 128 meters and its width 91 meters. They changed the historic names within Masjid an-Nabi and put the Wahhabi names in their places..

Masjid an-Nabi now has five doors. Two of them are on the west wall; the one near the qibla is called Babussalam, and the one near the north corner is called Baburrahma. The east wall has no door on the qibla side. The east wall has the Bab-i-Jibril, which is opposite the Baburrahma. Please see the picture at the end of the first part of the (Turkish) book Faideli Bilgiler (Useful Information).

It is written in Durr-ul-mukhtar, "The fard hajj must be made before visiting Medina. It is also permissible to visit Medina first. While making the supererogatory hajj you go to the city which is on your way first. When entering Medina you must intend only to visit the Prophet's 'alaihis-salam' grave. One prayer of salat in Masjid an-Nabi is superior to a thousand prayers of salat at other places. So is the case with such kinds of worship as fasting, alms, dhikr, and reading the Qur'an. You do not wear the ihram when you enter Medina. The prohibitions that are valid as you wear the ihram in Mecca are not valid in Medina. Ibn Taymiyya said that one should not go to Medina in order to visit the Prophet's grave, but his assertion has been answered by the savants of Ahl-as-sunnat. Imam-i-Abu Hasan Ali Subki 'rahmat-ullahi ta'ala alaih', [in his books Arraddu li-Ibni Taymiyya and Shifa-ul-sikam fi ziyarat-i Sayyid-il anam], refutes Ibni Taymiyya's misleading words with strong proofs. It is permissible even for women to visit the blessed grave at times when it is not crowded, provided they shall cover themselves." The articles refuting Ibni Taymiyya, by Imam-i-Subki and other savants, have been published in Arabic in the book Islamic Savants.

It is written in Maraqilfalah and in its marginal notes, "Seeing Medina from a distance, you say salat and salam. Then say a certain prayer, which exists in the Turkish version of our book, Endless Bliss. You make a ghusl before entering the city or Masjid. You put on some good alcohol-free perfume. You assume new, clean clothes. It will be good to enter the city walking. After placing your luggage, etc. at some place, with a hanging head and a broken heart, meditating on the value and the greatness of those sacred places, saying the prayer, "Bismillahi wa 'ala millati Rasulillah," and the eightieth ayat of sura Isra, which was revealed on the night of Hegira, and also the salawat-i-Sharifs, which are said also in namaz, you arrive at Masjid. Entering Masjid either through the Bab-us-salam or through the Bab-ul-Jibril, you perform two rakats of Tahiyyat-ul-masjid namaz near the minbar. The pillar of the minbar must be in line with your right shoulder. Rasulullah 'sallallahu alaihi wa sallam' would pray there. Then you perform two rakats of namaz of thanksgiving. After saying your prayers you stand up and with adab come near the Hujra-i-saada. With your face toward the wall of Muwajaha-i-saada and toward Rasulullah's blessed face and your back toward the qibla you stand with adab, about two meters from the blessed grave. You keep in your mind that Rasulullah sees you, hears your salam and prayers, and answers you, saying amin. Beginning with, "Assalamu 'alaika ya sayyidi, ya Rasulallah...," you say the long prayer in the (above-named) book. You say the salams sent (by others) through you. Then, first saying the salawat, you say the prayers you choose. Then, moving one meter to your right, you greet Hadrat Abu Bakr by saying the long prayer in the book which begins as, "Assalamu 'alaika ya khalifata Rasulillah..." Then, moving half a meter to your right you greet Hadrat 'Umar by saying the long prayer in the book. Then you pray for yourself, for your parents, for those who asked you to pray for them, and for all Muslims. Then you come back opposite Rasulullah's blessed face. You say the prayer in the book and also other prayers which you will choose. Then you come to the pillar to which hadrat Abu Lubaba tied himself and made tawba (penance). Here, and in the Rawda-i-mutahhara, you perform supererogatory or qada salat. You make tawba and pray. At your own discretion, you should also visit Masjid al-Kuba, Masjid Al-qiblatayn, the martyrs of Uhud, the graves at Baqi, and many other sacred places."

Ibn Qayyim says, "You pray by turning your back to Rasulullah's grave. Likewise states Abu Hanifa." It is written in Durar-us-saniyya that "Alusi, too, states so in his tafsir." However, all the savants of Ahl-as sunnat write that you pray by turning toward the blessed grave while putting the qibla wall behind you. Even Alusi, who is a follower of Ibni Taymiyya and Ibni Qayyim, is reasonable enough not to hide the fact, and writes in his Ghaliya: "After performing two rakats of namaz in Masjid, you come to the Hujra-i-saada, turn towards his blessed face and, standing with adab as you would do if he were alive, say salat and salam and say the prayers prescribed by the Sharia. For, Rasulullah is alive in his grave too. Most savants say that it is a sunnat to come from far away places only to visit the blessed grave. For, a hadith declares, 'He who comes to visit me and only visits me without doing anything else will have the right upon me that I should intercede for him,' and another hadith declares, 'I return the greeting of the person who greets me.'"

Abdulhaq-i-Dahlawi 'rahmat-ullahi ta'ala alaih' says in Persian in his book Jazb-ul- qulub: As the Masjid ash-Sharif was being built, two more rooms were built, one for Aisha and one for Sawda 'radiallahu anhuma'. Then, a room was built for each wedding, and the number of rooms became nine. It being a custom in Arabia, the rooms were made of date branches and were roofed with hair felt. Its doors were no more than hanging curtains. The rooms were on the south, east and north sides of Masjid. Some of them were made of sun- dried bricks. The doors of most of them opened into Masjid. Their ceilings were a span higher than a man of medium stature. There was a door between the rooms of Hadrat Fatima and Hadrat Aisha. A few days before his passing away, he had the doors of the Sahaba's rooms opening into Masjid closed, with the exception of that of Abu Bakr.

In the seventeenth year of the Hegira, Hadrat 'Umar 'radiallahu anh' had Masjid enlarged on the north, west and south sides. With the rooms belonging to the Zawjat-i-tahirat 'radi- allahu ta'ala anhunna' being on the east side, he did not do any enlargement on the east side. Thus, its south-north wall became a hundred and forty dhra' [seventy meters] and the east- west wall became a hundred and twenty dhra'. He said, "I would not enlarge Masjid if I had not heard the Prophet's command: 'It is necessary to enlarge my Masjid!' " He had the new walls made of sun-dried bricks and date branches like the old ones. Hadrat Abbas donated his room, which was adjacent to the west wall. Half of Jafar Tayyar's house adjacent to it having been bought, the two were added to Masjid ash-Sharif. In the meantime hadrat 'Umar had the Hujra as-saada restored with sun-dried bricks. In the thirtieth year of the Hegira hadrat 'Uthman had these walls demolished again and the Masjid enlarged. He had the new walls and the pillars made of stone and the ceiling of teak timber. A hadith conveyed by Abu Huraira declares, "If they enlarged my Masjid as far as San'a city in Yaman, all of it would be my Masjid."

In the eighty-eighth year the Caliph Walid gave an order to the governor of Medina 'Umar bin Abdulaziz, and all four walls were demolished, and the rooms of the Zawjat-i-tahirat, which were on the east side, were added to Masjid. The four walls of the Hujra-i-saada were demolished and rebuilt with dressed stones from the base. As the base was being dug out Hadrat 'Umar's one foot was seen. It had not rotted at all. A second wall was built around the Hujra. It had no doors. The ceiling of the Hujra became half a meter higher than Masjid, and Masjid became two hundred dhra' long and a hundred and sixty-seven dhra' wide. Forty craftsmen had been brought from the east Roman Empire, and the walls, the pillars, and the ceiling were ornamented with gold. For the first time, the mihrab and four minarets were built. The work took three years. In the hundred and sixty-first year Mahdi, one of the Abbasid caliphs, enlarged it by erecting ten pillars only on the north side. Also the Caliph Mamun enlarged it a little more in the year 202. Then, in the year 550, Jamaladdin Isfahani made a grating of sandalwood around the second wall. This grating is called Shabaka-i-Saada. A white silk curtain, which was sent from Egypt in the same year and on which the Sura-i-Yasin was written in red silk embroidery, was hung around it. This curtain is called Sattara. In the year 678 [1279] the Turkoman sultan of Egypt Salih Klawun 'rahmat Allahi ta'ala 'alaih' had today's Kubba-i hadra built and had it covered with sheet-lead. Today's Masjid was built in 888 [1483] by Ashraf Qaytabay 'rahmat Allahi ta'ala 'alaih', one of the Circassian sultans of Egypt, and was restored and embellished by the Ottoman sultans. Thus, we end our translation from Jazb-ul-qulub.

The center of Da'wat-ul-islamiyyat-ul-alamiyya, which is in Mirpur, in Pakistan, sent a declaration to all Muslim countries in 1398 [1978]. The declaration stated:

Our center of Da'wat-ul-islamiyyat-ul-alamiyya has met with disgust the article that proposes the demolition of the Qubba-ul-hadra and which was written by a Wahhabi named Sadulharamein in the Shaban 1397 [1977] issue of the periodical Ad-da'wa, which is published in Saudi Arabia. Our members convened in Mirpur, Pakistan, to protest the article. The assembly was presided over by Allama Muhammad Bashir 'rahmat-ullahi ta'ala alaih'. The following is a summary of speeches made in the presence of that great audience:

The Qubbat-ul-hadra is the apple of the eye of all Muslims. Muslims regard visiting this Hujra as a means for their salvation. For, our Prophet 'sall-Allahu alaihi wa sallam' declared, "My shafa'a (intercession) is wajib for a person who visits my grave." That squalid article of Sadul-haramein's is a great mischief and is a surreptitious stratagem of the enemies of Islam. Could a Muslim ever think of such a thing? Could he act as a ringleader in destroying the ensign of Allahu ta'ala? We swear by Allah that he could not. We have reason to believe that the scandalous article has been buttressed up by clandestine hands, e.g. Jewish forces, from behind. It is beyond doubt that their exhumation of the blessed bodies of the Sahaba and of our Prophet's father Abdullah from their graves has emboldened them to the detestable thought of demolishing the Qubba-i-hadra. This abominable article will lead to great mischief. There is no value in this. The Saudi Arabian government must explain whence the daring comes for this ugly article which has deeply hurt Muslims, whose hearts are filled with the love of Rasulullah and of the Qubbat-ul- hadra. Muslims, no doubt, love the Arabs because they have been serving the Haramein-i- Sharifein and the Qubbat-ul-hadra. If the Arabs desecrate these sacrosanct places, Muslims' hearts will certainly no longer have any love for them. We call upon the Muslims all over the world to inform the government of Saudi Arabia with the vehemence of the sorrow caused by this detestable trickery and to join the struggle for the neutralization of this atrocious stratagem!

The Arabic origin of the above-given summon has been appended to the end of the 1978 edition of the book Al-madarij-us-saniyya.

It is written at the end of the chapter about hajj in the book Ibn Abidin: "A poor person who goes on hajj does supererogatory worship until he arrives in Mecca. Hence he is given the thawab of supererogatory worship. When he arrives in Mecca it becomes fard for him to make the hajj. But a rich person begins to earn the thawab of the fard the moment he leaves his country for hajj. If a poor person leaves his country (or hometown) after putting on the ihram, he will earn the thawab of fard on the way too, thus attaining the same thawab as the rich one does. A person whose parents do not need him can go on the hajj which is fard without their permission. [But he cannot go on the supererogatory hajj without their permission.] Doing things useful for Islam, such as building mosques, schools for teaching the Qur'an, and the like, causes more thawab than the supererogatory hajj. If the money spent on the supererogatory hajj is portioned out to Muslims in need, making supererogatory hajj or 'umra will cause more thawab than giving alms in your own country. For, in this case, you will be worshipping both through property and through the body. It is stated in the twenty-sixth letter in Maqamat-i-mazhariyya that in this hajj it is necessary not to omit a fard or wajib without an excuse and not to commit an haram or makruh. Otherwise making the supererogatory hajj will produce sins rather than thawab. Please see the final part of the seventy-fourth chapter and the section dealing with zakat in the forty- sixth chapter in the first part of the Turkish original version and the letters 29 and 123 and 124 in the (Turkish book) Mujdeci Mektublar. Serving Islam by joining the army or through publication or propagation causes more thawab than the supererogatory hajj. For a person who does not have such services, helping the poor, the needy, the pious, the sayyids with money causes more thawab than making the supererogatory hajj or doing such services as building mosques, schools for teaching the Qur'an, and the like."

An eye whose looks take no warning,
Is one's enemy on one's own head.
Ear that takes no advice at each hearing;
In its hole one must pour hot lead!
A hand that has no good, pious doing,
Is not given Paradise grade.
Foot must be cut if worship's not its knowing;
Hang it near mosque, let others dread!
If the heart's not inhabited by divine loving,
Don't call it heart, it's fed in the mead!
Don't call the devil my nafs; it takes you to evil-doing.
Nafs will run to good, like downhill sled.
How could one call it heart, which Satan's leading;
By pride it's led, and on grudge it's fed.